The Canadian Race Relations Foundation maintains a glossary with definitions of key concepts relevant to race relations, the promotion of Canadian identity, belonging and the mutuality of citizenship rights and responsibilities.
Terms are organized in alphabetical order.
|Immigrant||One who moves from his/her native country to another with the intention of settling for the purpose of forging a better life or for better opportunities. This may be for a variety of personal, political, religious, social or economic reasons. The word is sometimes used incorrectly to refer, implicitly or explicitly, to people of colour or with nondominant ethnicities.|
|Inclusive Education||Education that is based on the principles of acceptance and inclusion of all students. Students see themselves reflected in their curriculum, their physical surroundings, and the broader environment, in which diversity is honoured and all individuals are respected.|
|Inclusive Language||The deliberate selection of vocabulary that avoids explicit or implicit exclusion of particular groups and that avoids the use of false generic terms, usually with reference to gender.|
Three categories apply to Indians in Canada: status Indians, non-status Indians, and treaty Indians. A status Indian is the legal identity of a First Nations person who is registered as an “Indian” under the Indian Act. A non-status Indian is someone who considers themselves to be a First Nations person or a member of a First Nation but who the government of Canada does not recognize as an Indian under the Indian Act, either because they are unable to prove their Indian status or have lost their status rights. Non-status Indians do not receive the same rights and benefits conferred upon status Indians under the Indian Act. Métis and Inuit peoples are not Indians.
First passed in 1876 and amended several times since, the Indian Act governs the federal government's legal and political relationship with status Indians across Canada, setting out federal government obligations and regulating the management of reserve lands, Indian moneys, and other resources. The Indian Act also currently requires the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development to approve or disallow by-laws enacted in First Nations communities. Since 1945, some of its more draconian elements have been removed to comply with international human rights law regarding civil and political rights, including opposition to genocide.
First used in the 1970s, when Aboriginal peoples worldwide were fighting for representation at the U.N., and now frequently used by academics and in international contexts (e.g., the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples). Understood to mean the communities, peoples, and nations that have a historical continuity with pre-invasion, pre-settler, or pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, as distinct from the other societies now prevailing on those territories (or parts of them). Can be used more or less interchangeably with “Aboriginal,” except when referring specifically to a Canadian legal context, in which case “Aboriginal” is preferred, as it is the term used in the Constitution.
|Individual Racism||The conscious or unconscious beliefs, attitudes and actions of an that perpetuate racism.|
|Institutional Racism||see Systemic Discrimination|
|Institutions||Fairly stable social arrangements through which collective actions are taken (e.g. government, business, unions, schools, churches, courts, police).|
|Integration||The process of amalgamating diverse groups within a single social context, usually applied to inter-racial interaction in housing, education, political and socio-economic spheres or activity., People who are integrated still retain their cultural identity. Integration is the implemented policy that ends segregation.|
|Intercultural Communication||Information exchange wherein the sender and receiver are of different cultural, ethnic or linguistic backgrounds.|
|Internalized Dominance||Incorporation of superiority and dominance, and the social interaction that results.|
|Internalized Oppression||Patterns of mistreatment of racialized groups and acceptance of the negative messages of the dominant group become established in their cultures and members assume roles as victims.|
|Intersectionality||The experience of the interconnected nature of ethnicity, race, creed, etc., (cultural, institutional and social), and the way they are imbedded within existing systems such that they define how one is valued.|
|Intolerance||BBigotry or narrow mindedness which results in refusal to respect or acknowledge persons of different racial backgrounds.|
A circumpolar people who live primarily in four regions of Canada: the Nunavut Territory, Nunavik (northern Quebec), Nunatsiavut (Newfoundland and Labrador), and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (western Arctic). “Inuit” means “people” in the Inuit language of Inuktitut; when referring to one person, use the word “Inuk,” which means “person.” Inuit are one of the ethno-cultural groups comprising the Aboriginal peoples of Canada. The Inuit are not to be confused with the Innu, who are a First Nations group living in southeastern Quebec and southern Labrador.
|Islamophobia||A term recently coined to refer to expressions of fear and negative stereotypes, bias or acts of hostility towards the religion of Islam and individual Muslims.|