The Canadian Race Relations Foundation maintains a glossary with definitions of key concepts relevant to race relations, the promotion of Canadian identity, belonging and the mutuality of citizenship rights and responsibilities.
Terms are organized in alphabetical order.
One who moves from their native country to another with the intention of settling permanently for the purpose of forging a better life or for better opportunities. This may be for a variety of personal, political, religious, social or economic reasons.
The extent to which diverse members of a group (society/organization) feel valued and respected.
Education that is based on the principles of acceptance and inclusion of all students. Students see themselves reflected in their curriculum, their physical surroundings, and the broader environment, in which diversity is honoured and all individuals are respected.
The deliberate selection of vocabulary that avoids explicit or implicit exclusion of particular groups and that avoids the use of false generic terms, usually with reference to gender.
A term historically used to identify and erase the differences among the Indigenous peoples of South, Central, and North America. The term "Indian" has been recognized as derogatory and incorrect in its history and usage, but its use in Canada persists because of the continuing legislated definitions of "Indian" contained in The Indian Act (1876), and, more recently, in the enshrinement of Aboriginal Rights under the Canadian Constitution Act of 1982. While some Indigenous people in Canada do self-identify as "Indian," the use of the term "Indian" by non-Indigenous people is generally confined to discussions of legislative definitions and concerns.
Three categories apply to Indians in Canada: status Indians, non-status Indians, and treaty Indians.
A Status (or Registered) Indian is the legal identity of a First Nations person who is registered as an “Indian” under the Indian Act.
Treaty Indians are persons who are registered under the Indian Act and can prove descent from a Band that signed a treaty.
A non-status Indian is someone who considers themselves to be a First Nations person, or a member of a First Nation, but who the Government of Canada does not recognize as an Indian under the Indian Act, either because they are unable to prove their Indian status or have lost their status rights. Non-status Indians do not receive the same rights and benefits conferred upon status Indians under the Indian Act.
First passed in 1876 and amended several times since, the Indian Act governs the federal government's legal and political relationship with status Indians across Canada, setting out federal government obligations and regulating the management of reserve lands, Indian monies, and other resources. The Indian Act also currently requires the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development to approve or disallow by-laws enacted in First Nations communities.
First used in the 1970’s, when Aboriginal peoples worldwide were fighting for representation at the U.N., this term is now frequently used by academics and in international contexts (e.g., the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples). Indigenous is understood to mean the communities, peoples, and nations that have a historical continuity with pre-invasion, pre-settler, or pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, as distinct from the other societies now prevailing on those territories (or parts of them). Can be used more or less interchangeably with “Aboriginal,” except when referring specifically to a Canadian legal context, in which case “Aboriginal” is preferred, as it is the term used in the Constitution.
Individual Racism is structured by an ideology (set of ideas, values and beliefs) that frames one's negative attitudes towards others; and is reflected in the willful, conscious/unconscious, direct/indirect, or intentional/unintentional words or actions of individuals. This is one of the three levels that make up Systemic Racism.
Institutional Racism exists in organizations or institutions where the established rules, policies, and regulations are both informed by, and inform, the norms, values, and principles of institutions. These in turn, systematically produce differential treatment of, or discriminatory practices towards various groups based on race. It is enacted by individuals within organizations, who because of their socialization, training and allegiance to the organization abide by and enforce these rules, policies and regulations. It essentially maintains a system of social control that favours the dominant groups in society (status quo). This is one of the three levels that make up Systemic Racism.
Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Further, institutions can refer to mechanisms of social order e.g. government, business, unions, schools, churches, courts, police), which govern the behaviour of a set of individuals within a given community.
The process of amalgamating diverse groups within a single social context, usually applied to inter-racial interaction in housing, education, political and socio-economic spheres or activity. People who are integrated still retain their cultural identity. Integration is the implemented policy that ends segregation.
Information exchange wherein the sender and receiver are of different cultural, ethnic or linguistic backgrounds.
In the province of Quebec, an alternative to multiculturalism. Interculturalism accepts the primacy of francophone culture and then works to integrate other minorities into a common public culture, while respecting their diversity.
Where individuals are unconsciously conditioned to believe they are superior or inferior in status, affecting social interaction. Internalized domination or dominance is likely to involve feelings of superiority, normalcy and self-righteousness, together with guilt, fear, projection and denial of demonstrated inequity.
Patterns of mistreatment of racialized groups and acceptance of the negative messages of the dominant group become established in their cultures and members assume roles as victims.
The experience of the interconnected nature of ethnicity, race, creed, gender, socio-economic position etc., (cultural, institutional and social), and the way they are imbedded within existing systems and define how one is valued.
Bigotry or narrow mindedness which results in refusal to respect or acknowledge persons of different backgrounds.
A circumpolar people who live primarily in four regions of Canada: the Nunavut Territory, Nunavik (northern Quebec), Nunatsiavut (Newfoundland and Labrador), and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (western Arctic). “Inuit” means “people” in the Inuit language of Inuktitut; when referring to one person use the word “Inuk,” which means “person.” Inuit are one of the ethno-cultural groups comprising the Aboriginal peoples of Canada. The Inuit are not to be confused with the Innu, who are a First Nations group living in southeastern Quebec and southern Labrador.
Fear, hatred of, or prejudice against the Islamic religion or Muslims.